The SANADA family

Publié le par Yama no Kami Nobusada

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真田幸隆Sanada-Yukitaka



真田幸隆は真田氏の基礎を築いた人物です。

幸隆以前は真田氏の名前は見当たらず、 幸隆の幼少の頃もわかっておりません。 生まれは永正10年(1513)と推定されております。 真田氏の由来に関しては現在の真田地区からもともと居た。群馬等他から真田にやって来たなど諸説ございますが分っておりません。海野氏の出という説もありますが真田氏は自分の身元を知らしめる為で可能性は低いと私は見ております。 真田氏の歴史舞台への登場 天文10年(1541)、武田信玄の父武田信虎が投じ当時小県地籍を治めていた海野氏を打つために、当地の領域においての敵対関係にあった村上氏を誘い戦いを仕掛けます。当地籍を流れる川の名前から「神川(加賀川)合戦」と呼ばれております。 この戦いに真田幸隆は海野氏側について参戦しますが、海野氏は敗北し滅びます。真田幸隆は真田の地を追われ、武田氏に敵対する上杉氏の重臣である上州の箕輪城主長野業正を頼り長野氏のはからいで群馬県安中市にある曹洞宗の寺院「長源寺」に身を寄せます。このとき真田氏の菩提寺、長谷寺の開山となる伝為晃雲和尚に出会います。 やがて武田氏が信玄の時代になると、武田氏は信濃侵攻をおしすすめてまいります。それには当時小県地方を統治していた村上氏の勢力が非常に邪魔な存在となっていました。(この対立を読んだ幸隆は武田氏の家臣となります 天文17年(1548)武田信玄は当時上田地方の有力豪族村上氏と上田市上田原地籍で戦をします。幸隆も武田氏と共に戦いますがこの戦いは敗退に終わります。 時をおいて天文19年(1550)信玄は再び村上氏に戦いを挑み、需要拠点である砥石(現在名戸)城を攻めます。東側を断崖と川、急峻な山と一帯を眺望できる強固な山城は信玄をまたもや敗北へと追い込みます。しかしその後幸隆は情報戦略と想像できる工作をおこない天文20年(1551)5月26日砥石城を乗っ取ります。この働きにより幸隆は信玄に地位をみとめられ、真田を奪い返したばかりか上田の一部領有権も獲得し名を出していくようになります



真田 信繁(幸村) Sanada-Nobushige(Yukimura)





真田 幸村は真田氏の中でもっとも有名な人物として知られています。

●生まれ 幸村’は『信繁』(のぶしげ)という名が本来の名ですが通称‘幸村’と呼ばれています。幸村はに永禄10年(1567)産まれました。 第一次上田合戦では父「昌幸」や兄「信之」と共に徳川と戦い勝利をおさめます。その後秀吉の勧告により徳川と和解します.

●上田合戦とちっ居生活 やがて太閤秀吉がなくなると再び動乱の世となります。徳川の命で会津攻めに向っていた真田家父子は石田光成の使者に豊臣方への援軍の要請を受けます。父「昌幸」「信繁」「信之」で話し合った結果、真田の子孫の為?両方の恩義に報いる為?父「昌幸」と「信繁」は豊臣方、兄「信之」は徳川方につくことになります。 関が原の戦いに向っていた徳川秀頼の3万数千の軍を真田は2000あまりの軍で上田城にてまた勝利し徳川の軍を足止めします。第2次上田合戦とよんでいます。 しかし、関が原の戦いは徳川の勝利であり「信繁(幸村)」は父「昌幸」とともに打ち首となるところを「信之」の懇願により助けられ和歌山県の九度山へ流されます。蟄居生活中父昌幸は亡くなります。

●大阪冬の陣 やがて時代は「大阪冬の陣」を迎えます。幸村は‘豊臣秀頼’方の誘いを受け大阪城に入ります。幸村は戦いに備え出城「真田丸」を築きます。この真田丸は冬の陣で大いにその力を発揮し有名になります。この「大阪冬の陣」は堀を埋めるという条件の和議をもって終結します。これにより真田丸は使えなくなります。

●大阪夏の陣 そして決戦の「大阪夏の陣」を迎えます。幸村は家康の本陣へ突入し家康の命を危うくしますが失敗に終わります。このとき傷ついた幸村は近くの「安居神社」で兜を取り休息しますが、このとき命を絶ちます。49歳の生涯でした。 幸村の息子‘大助’も戦っておりましたが、秀頼の自害に続き自分も自害し若過ぎる人生を終わらせます。大阪城は落城し動乱の時代は終息します。 このときの武勇伝により真田幸村は有名になり、勝敗が見えるにもかかわらず決死の覚悟で望む姿・優れた戦略に多くのファンをひきつけています。  真田氏は幸隆の時代から忍びを活用し情報収集や戦略に用いたといわれております。‘猿飛佐助’‘霧隠才蔵’などの真田十勇士(実際には架空というのが事実でしょう)が語り告がれています。

●その後の真田氏   一方真田氏は徳川方についた長男‘信之’が継ぎ領地は上田から長野市松代に移封になったものの末裔は現代まで続いております。 上田城はその後仙石氏、松平氏が統治し現在は櫓とお堀が残っております。しかし真田家当初の建物は残っておりません。

Yukimra's grave




    The Sanada clan (真田氏 Sanada-shi?) was a reputed clan that was born within Shinano province during the early 1500's of the Sengoku Period of Feudal Japan. Thriving within Northern Chiisagata District's Sanada Village during this period in time, they began their notable service under the Takeda clan for many generations following, capturing variable regions such as Numata castle of northwestern Kozuke and giving birth to many exceedingly famous figures of the day such as Sanada Yukimura, regarded as a hero among others.
    As the final leading figure of the Takeda--Takeda Katsuyori--was destroyed along with his clansmen within 1582, the Sanada obtained the entire district of Chiisagata, at which the famed Sanada Masayuki constructed the Ueda Castle: A time at which he then submitted to Oda Nobunaga using this newly established "armor" to effectively defend the remaining power that the Sanada still possessed. However, as Nobunaga was killed only a few months following this resolution, Masayuki was surrounded by the independent Uesugi, Tokugawa, and Hojo, forcing him to establish many temporary allegiances and alliances with other neighboring powers, allowing the Sanada to survive even with such an evidentially low level of influence and authority.
    As the remaining years of the 1500's had passed by with constant defense from Tokugawa Ieyasu and his consecutive assaults upon the castle of Ueda, the Battle of Sekigahara began in 1600, at which Masayuki, ensuring that the clan of Sanada must essentially survive to all means, ordered his two sons--Nobuyuki and Yukimura--to serve upon individual sides: Nobuyuki would support the the 'eastern' army under Tokugawa Ieyasu; Yukimura would join the 'western' army under the command of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Ishida Mitsunari.
    With Sekigahara ending in victory for Ieyasu that same year, Masayuki and Yukimura, who were to be executed upon the condition of their mutual support of the 'east', were exiled to Kudoyama in Kii province, solely due to the service of Nobuyuki, who was thus re-attained his position of headship over both Numata castle and Ueda as a result. With the clan of Sanada having survived, they would live up until the year of 1668--the time at which the final heir had died--as daimyo over Numata and that of Matsushiro, their designated replacement over Ueda.


UEDA Jô



Every now and then the subject of "Sanada-ryu" ninjutsu comes up on the internet and in these forums. For some reason, the Sanada clan is virtually unknown in the Western world, and nobody seems interested in cracking open a book to find out more about them.

As such, I thought I would start a thread here to introduce a little of what is typically written about the Sanada clan in both English and Japanese.

The most well known players in the clan were:

Sanada (danjo-no-jo) Yukitaka (Aka: Sanada Ittokusai) - b. 1512 - d. 1574. One of Takeda Shingen's 24 Generals. Known for his skills in Senpo (guerilla tactics).

Sanada (gentazaemon-no-jo) Nobutsuna - b. 1537- d. 1575. First son of Yukitaka, and leader of the clan after his death. Died at the battle of Nagashino. One of Takeda Shingen?s 24 Generals.

Sanada Masateru - b. 1541 - d. 1575. Second son. Died at the battle of Nagashino. A General under Takeda.

Sanada Masayuki (Aka: Moto Kihei). b. 1544 - d. 1608. Third son of Yukitaka, and leader of the clan after
Nobutsuna's death. Builds Ueda-jo in 1583. A General under Takeda. Known for his skills in Senpo, and espionage (ninpo).

Sanada Yukimura (Aka: Sanada saemon-no-suke Nobushige)- b. 1567 - d. 1615. Second son of Masayuki. Sent as a hostage to Uesugi in Echigo. Very famous samurai, having fought for Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the winter and summer campaigns at Osaka Castle.

Sanada (izu-no-kami) Nobuyuki - b. 1566 - d.1658. Sent as a hostage to Tokugawa in Shizuoka. Succeeded as the han elder, living until 92. Fought against his brother Yukimura at Osaka under the army of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

**

Following is some general information:

Sanada Yukimura was the leader of a minor house (clan), called the Sanada-han. He and his father Sanada Masayuki were famous for being brilliant tacticians. Though their army was very small, they won many battles in which they were outnumbered.

At first Yukimura followed Ieyasu. However, Ieyasu later tried to seize his territory, so Yukimura betrayed Ieyasu. In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, he followed Ishida Mitsunari to fight against Ieyasu. He also defended the castle of Ueda (built by his father Masayuki) in Shinshu from the vast army of Tokuyawa Hidetada, the son of Ieyasu. After the battle, his territory was seized by Ieyasu. But Yukimura gathered his army secretly, and raised it when the Winter Campaign of Osaka castle broke out in 1615.

Yukimura built a small fortress called Sanada-maru ("Sanada circle") in the southwest area of Osaka castle. This fortress was impregnable, and Ieyasu's army suffered many losses trying to over-run it. So Ieyasu gave up attacking the castle in this battle, and proposed a reconcilation to Toyotomi Hideyori.

Of course, this was Ieyasu's insidious strategy. He proposed a condition for the reconcilation, to destroy the outer moat of the castle. But when his envoy came in the castle, they destroyed not only the outer moat but also the inner moat. Osaka Castle was made defenseless.

Next year, Ieyasu gathered vast armies, and attack the castle again. This battle is known as the Summer Campaign of Osaka castle. Yukimura fought the army of Date Masamune on May 6. Though Yukimura's army was outnumbered, he succeeded to stop Masamune's army. And the next day, he and a few his soldiers assaulted to the camp of Ieyasu directly. He closed in upon Ieyasu, but killed at the last step.

A legend says Yukimura had ten heroic warriors, which were known as the Sanada Ju-Yushi ( Aka: Sanada Gundan). Its members were:

1. Sarutobi Sasuke
2. Kirigakure Saizo
3. Miyoshi Seikai Nyudo
4. Miyoshi Isa Nyudo
5. Anayama Kosuke
6. Unno Rokuro
7. Kakei Juzo
8. Nezu Jinpachi
9. Mochizuki Rokuro
10. Yuri Kama-no-suke

Sarutobi Sasuke and Kirigakure Saizo (and possibly Mochizuki Rokuro) are also known from ninja lore, and are said to have been famous ninja. It is said that these ten brave warriors played active parts in the battles at Osaka Castle, defending against Tokugawa Ieyasu's army.
Sanada-machi (Sanada town) is located in Nagano. They still sell "Sanada-himo" (Sanada cordage) of which the area was famous for, and still have a Sanada gunnery troop. Sanadayama park in Osaka sits on top of the area where the Sanada-maru was built at Osaka-jo during the Sengoku period.

Sarutobi Sasuke is one of a handful of names passed down through ninja lore. He was supposedly taught Koga-ryu ninjutsu by Tozawa Hakuunsai (supposed founder of "Gyokko ryu"). Because his foster father was a old subordinate of Sanada family, he also served Sanada Yukimura. It is said he died on action in during the Summer Campaign at Osaka-jo.

**

The Bugei ryu-ha Dai-jiten shows the following entries (pages 315-316):

1) Sanada ryu Gunpo [war tactics] - main listing w/ lineage. Takeda Shingen is listed as the founder, w/ Sanada Masayuki as the third inheritor (w/ three successive generations of Sanada to follow)
2) Sanada ryu Gunpo - less major art.
3) Sanada-ke ryu (hojutsu) - minor listing.
4) Sanada Yukimura ryu (dai-hojutsu) - minor listing.
5) Sanada ryu (gunba [cavalry horsemanship]) - minor listing.
6) Sanada ryu (gun'yo [military arts/use]) - minor listing.
7) Sanada ryu (ka [fire]) - minor listing.
8) Sanada ryu (jujutsu) - minor listing.
9) Sanada ryu (bojutsu) - minor listing.
10) Sanada ryu (shurikenjutsu) - minor listing.

NIN-JUTSU

Though there is not any mention of "ninpo/jutsu" in the BRDJ in regards to these ryu-ha, there WERE at least 10 known "Sanada ryu" listed.

The Sanada clan was a samurai clan that was famous for employing guerilla tactics and "beating the odds" through unconventional thinking (senpo, ninpo, etc.). Ninja were known to have been employed at Osaka castle, and fought in the Winter and Summer Campaigns. 2-3 of the 10 famous warriors under Sanada Yukimura are recorded in legend as famous ninja.

There may or may not have ever been a specific "Sanada ryu" of ninjutsu, but the fact is, ninja lore is associated to some degree with the Sanada clan in Japanese history texts, and the clan did exist, and did spawn a number of martial ryu-ha. I suspect that the "real" history of the Sanada clan and ninjutsu is about as sketchy as most clans believed to have ninja ties. So take it for what it's worth.

Publié dans Histoire

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