The rise of TAKEDA FAMILY

Publié le par Yama no Kami Nobusada



武田 晴信武田 信玄(たけだ はるのぶ/たけだ しんげん)は、戦国時代の武将、甲斐の守護大名・戦国大名。

本姓は源氏。家系は清和源氏の一家系河内源氏の傍系・甲斐源氏の嫡流にあたる甲斐武田家の当主。、諱は晴信。「信玄」とは(出家後の)法名。大正期に従三位を贈られる。

甲斐の守護を代々務めた甲斐源氏武田家の嫡男として生まれ、前代・信虎期には国内統一が達成され、信虎体制を継承して隣国・信濃に侵攻する。その過程で対立した越後の上杉謙信と5次にわたると言われる川中島の戦いを行ないつつ信濃をほぼ平定し、甲斐本国に加え信濃、駿河、西上野、遠江、三河と美濃の一部を領し、次代の勝頼期にかけて武田氏の領国を拡大した。晩年には上洛の途上、三河で病を発し信濃で病没した。

江戸時代から近現代にかけて『甲陽軍鑑』に描かれる伝説的な人物像が広く浸透し、風林火山の軍旗を用い、甲斐の虎(または甲斐の龍とも)と呼ばれ、強大な武田軍を率い上杉謙信の好敵手としてのイメージが形成される。現在でも、地元の山梨県をはじめ全国的に高い知名度を持ち、人気を集めている戦国武将の一人。

時代     戦国時代
生誕     大永元年11月3日(1521年12月1日)
死没     元亀4年4月12日(1573年5月13日)
改名     武田勝千代、晴信、徳栄軒信玄
別名     太郎、甲斐の虎
戒名     法性院機山信玄
墓所     信玄墓、大泉寺、恵林寺、諏訪湖
長岳寺、竜雲寺、高野山、福田寺
妙心寺ほか
官位     従四位下、大膳大夫、信濃守、贈従三位
幕府     室町幕府甲斐守護職・信濃守護職
氏族     武田氏(清和源氏・河内源氏系甲斐源氏)
父母     父:武田信虎、母:大井の方
兄弟     竹松、信玄、犬千代、信繁
信基、信廉、松尾信是、宗智、
河窪信実、一条信龍、信友、勝虎
定恵院(今川義元室)、南松院(穴山信友室)
禰々(諏訪頼重室)、菊御料人(菊亭晴季室)
亀御料人(大井信為室)
妻     正室:上杉朝興の娘
継室:三条公頼の娘・三条の方
側室:諏訪頼重の娘・諏訪御料人
禰津元直の娘・禰津御寮人
油川源左衛門の娘・油川夫人ほか
子     義信、海野信親、信之、黄梅院(北条氏政室)
見性院(穴山信君室)、勝頼
真竜院(木曾義昌室)、仁科盛信、葛山信貞
信清、松姫(織田信忠と婚約)、菊姫(上杉景勝室)
history of the Takeda Family

    Prominent military house of the Kamakura (1185-1333), Muromachi (1333-1568), and Azuchi-Momoyama (1568-1600) periods. The family traced its provenance back to Shinra Saburo Yoshimitsu (d 1127), a famous scion of the Seiwa Genji branch of the minamoto family; its name derives from the residence of Yoshimitsu's great-grandson Nobuyoshi (d 1186) in Takeda, Mukawa no Sho, Kai Province (now the city of Nirasaki, Yamanashi Prefecture).


Minamoto no Yoshimitsu (Takeda Yoshimitsu) no Yoroi
Armure de Minamoto Yoshimitsu, héritage et trésor du clan TAKEDA
Minamoto Yoshimitsu armour. heirloom and treasur of the Takeda family

    Takeda Nobuyoshi fought for the future shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Taira--Minamoto war (1180-1185); his son Nobumitsu (d 1248) distinguished himself in the service of the Kamakura shogun-ate during the jokyu disturbance of 1221, eventually being appointed shugo (military governor) of Aki Province (now part of Hiroshima Prefecture). It is assumed that the family played a major role in its home province of Kai during the Kamakura period, but the scanty historical records on shugo in Kai during that period show only that a Takeda served in that post between 1331 and 1333; the Takeda did, however, hold it throughout the Muromachi period.
    This shugo family came close to being destroyed when it took the losing side in the Rebellion of Uesugi Zenshu in 1416-17: Takeda Nobumitsu lost his life, and his heir, Nobushige (d 1450), fled Kai to seek refuge in the Shingon monastery on Mt. Koya (Koyasan). Nobushige was appointed military governor of Kai in 1423 but could not enter the province until 1438 because of the opposition of powerful local, barons (kokujin), such as the Hemmi and Anayama families, collaterals of the Takeda. In the Eikyo Disturbance, which broke out that year, the Takeda helped the shogunate to destroy its rebellious governor-general of the Kanto (Kamakura kubo), Ashikaga Mochiuji (1398-1439), and reestablished themselves in Kai. Their hold on the province was, however, by no means secure: from 1492 to 1517, for instance, they were constantly threatened by family conflicts, vassals' revolts, and the incursions of their neighbors Imagawa Ujichika (1473?-1526) of Sumpu and Hôjô Soun of Odawara.
    The family's position was finally consolidated by Takeda Nobutora (1498-1574), who succeeded to its headship in 1507 and over the next two decades managed to fend off external enemies while subduing the kokujin; Nobutora established the Takeda as a sengoku daimyo house. The house's fortunes reached their apogee under Takeda Shingen, who displaced his father Nobutora in 1541; but the Takeda house of Kai fell in 1582, when the hegemon Oda Nobunaga destroyed Shingen's son Takeda Katsuyori.        The Takeda of Kai are the best known, but other branches of the family are as noteworthy. At least 10 Takeda were shugo of Aki Province under the Muromachi shogunate from 1336 to 1520. when they were supplanted by the Ouchi family. An offshoot of this lineage were military governors of Wakasa Province (now part of Fukui Prefecture) from 1440; there the Takeda supplanted the Isshiki fiimily.
    The Takeda of Wakasa were known for their cultural pursuits: Kuninobu (1442-90) and his son Motonobu (1472?-1521), in particular, were noted amateurs of poetry. Successive heads of this house were devoted to compiling the rules of chivalrous bearing, especially of mounted archery (yabusame), developing a "Takeda school" of military etiquette (kyuba kojitsu). By the middle of the 16th century, this branch of the Takeda was in decline, unable to control Wakasa's local barons; by 1570 Wakasa was nothing more than an arena of contention for the outsiders Oda Nobunaga and Asakura Yoshikage. The province fell under Nobunaga's sway.
    In 1582, when Nobunaga was killed in the honnoji incident Takeda Motoaki adhered to the assassin, Akkechi Mitsuhide, but was captured and committed suicide, as had his relative Takeda Katsuyori of Kai. Thus the two major branches of the Takeda family were destroyed within four months and one week of each other. The following text explain the rise of Takeda Shingen, maybe the most powerfull daimyo of the Country at War age...


Takeda Harunobu


La période des royaumes en guerre...

    Pendant la plus grande partie du siècle qui suivit la guerre d'Onin, de 1467 à 1477, tout le Japon fut secoué par des luttes intestines continues menées par des Seigneurs dont le but ultime était le pouvoir autonome. Ceci mena le pays à un tel chaos que des conflits commencèrent à tous les niveaux de la société ; les paysans se rebellèrent contre leurs seigneurs, les soldats contre les généraux et ces mêmes seigneurs entre eux.
    Alors que l'organisation gouvernementale s'effritait, l'idée du gouvernement autonome se propageait de plus en plus à travers le pays Près de la capitale, Kyoto, des paysans résistèrent avec succès au paiement des taxes en s'unissant en de fortes associations nommées "IKKI" .
    Les marchands de saké et de riz se réunirent pour reconstruire la capitale meurtrie par les longues années de guerre et pour résister à la dépravation militaire. Les chefs de la plus célèbre secte salvationiste "IKKI" devinrent assez puissants pour chasser le gouverneur provincial de KAGA, sur la côte de la mer du Japon en 1486 et parvinrent à garder un gouvernement territorial autonome jusqu'en 1576. De cette façon, les paysans, les marchands et d'autres groupes non militaires se rallièrent pour saisir le contrôle de leurs propres affaires pendant que les grands seigneurs perdaient leur pouvoir sur les campagnes, en essayant de le garder intact selon l'ancien système du "Shûgô".
    Pourtant, les véritables vainqueurs de ce chaos politique étaient les Seigneurs de l'Est qui, profitant du conflit, développèrent leur propre organisation militaire et politique. Ces nouveaux chefs, Seigneurs des provinces en guerre (Sengoku Daimyo) ont marqué 1 histoire du Japon de leurs exploits dramatiques et des formidables batailles qu'ils se sont livrés. Depuis la fin de la guerre d'0nin, les Daimyo enrôlaient les guerriers campagnards à leur service et étendaient leur pouvoirs sur l'agriculture et le commerce.
    Parmi les héros de cette dramatique période, ce fut TAKEDA SHINGEN, Shûgô de la province de Kai (l'actuelle Yamanashi-Ken) qui prouva être le Seigneur des seigneurs de guerre.

carte-kai.jpg
Carte du centre-Japon


    For the most part of a century after the Onin War of 1467 to 1477, the whole of Japan was disturbed by continual military struggles waged by samurai competing for autonomous territorial control. The contention led (0 such chaos that conflict arose at every level of society; peasants rose against landlords, soldiers against generals, and warlords challenged their neighbors. Daimyo who derived authority from the Ashikaga Bakufu, the nominal government, led armies in the environs of Kyoto, vying to control the Bakufu. After the death in 1490 of the Shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, famous for patronizing the Nô and leading an aesthetic movement from his Silver Pavilion, succeeding shoguns fell under the power of these warlords.
    As government organization broke down, a measure of self-government became more evident throughout the country. Near the capital at Kyoto, peasants successfully resisted taxation by unifying in strong village organizations (Ikkyo).
    Sake and rice merchants banded together to rebuild the blighted capital and resist military depredation. Leaders of the most famous of the Salvationist Buddhist sects, the Ikko Church, were powerful enough to overthrow the provincial constable of Kaga, on the Japan Sea coast, around 1486, and maintained an autonomous territorial government until 1576. Thus peasants, merchants, and other non-military groups rallied to grasp control over their own affairs as the great daimyo loosened their grasp on the countryside in an attempt to hold their own in the old order.
    However, the real victors to emerge from the political chaos were the eastern warlords who took advantage of the conflict in the west to develop their own military and civilian political organizations at home. The new leaders were the Warlords of the Age of Strife (sengoku daimyo), who marked history with dramatic exploits and daring military encounters. They tough i to control new territories, and they forged a new social order in the lands they conquered. From the end of the Onin War, the warlords pressed the countryside samurai into service, and stretched their control over agriculture and commerce.
    Among the dozen or so heroes in this dramatic period, it was Takeda Shingen of Kai Province who proved himself to be the warlord's warlord. En cours de réalisation





TSUTSUJIGASAKI-JÔ



Alternate Name Takedashi-yakata
Founder Takeda Nobutora Year 1519
Type Flatland Artifacts stone walls, moat
Location Kofu City, Yamanashi Pref. Map Google Map Access 15 minutes bus ride from Kofu Station (Chuo Line) Website Takeda Shrine
Visited November 15, 2003 Notes Currently, the grounds of this former estate are mostly occupied by the Takeda Shrine. If you are in Kofu and visit the site of Kofu Castle, you might as well visit the Takeda Shrine and these ruins as well.

tsutsuji6.jpg

History

Founded in 1519, this was the home and center of power for three generations of the Takeda (Nobutora, Shingen, and Katsuyori). The Takeda reached their pinnacle under Shingen who actually participated in a revolution that overthrew his father and sent him into exile when he found out that Nobutora was going to make Shingen's brother Nobushige his heir. Shingen is made famous in an old poem that claims "men are your castle, men are your castle walls, men are your moats." This relates the emphasis that Shingen put in his people and during his rein he didn't build any castles beyond the fortification at Tsutsujigasaki. The picture above is taken from the corner of Nishi Kuruwa (west bailey) looking across the moat of the main compound. You'll notice this isn't called a castle here. It's not called a castle in Japanese either. It's really just a huge heavily fortified mansion or estate. For the time period in which it was originally built it would have surely been an impressive structure.

Publié dans Histoire

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