武田 晴信／武田 信玄（たけだ はるのぶ／たけだ しんげん）は、戦国時代の武将、甲斐の守護大名・戦国大名。
Prominent military house of the Kamakura (1185-1333), Muromachi (1333-1568), and Azuchi-Momoyama (1568-1600) periods. The family traced its provenance back to Shinra Saburo Yoshimitsu (d 1127), a famous scion of the Seiwa Genji branch of the minamoto family; its name derives from the residence of Yoshimitsu's great-grandson Nobuyoshi (d 1186) in Takeda, Mukawa no Sho, Kai Province (now the city of Nirasaki, Yamanashi Prefecture).
Armure de Minamoto Yoshimitsu, héritage et trésor du clan TAKEDA
Minamoto Yoshimitsu armour. heirloom and treasur of the Takeda family
Takeda Nobuyoshi fought for the future shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Taira--Minamoto war (1180-1185); his son Nobumitsu (d 1248) distinguished himself in the service of the Kamakura shogun-ate during the jokyu disturbance of 1221, eventually being appointed shugo (military governor) of Aki Province (now part of Hiroshima Prefecture). It is assumed that the family played a major role in its home province of Kai during the Kamakura period, but the scanty historical records on shugo in Kai during that period show only that a Takeda served in that post between 1331 and 1333; the Takeda did, however, hold it throughout the Muromachi period.
This shugo family came close to being destroyed when it took the losing side in the Rebellion of Uesugi Zenshu in 1416-17: Takeda Nobumitsu lost his life, and his heir, Nobushige (d 1450), fled Kai to seek refuge in the Shingon monastery on Mt. Koya (Koyasan). Nobushige was appointed military governor of Kai in 1423 but could not enter the province until 1438 because of the opposition of powerful local, barons (kokujin), such as the Hemmi and Anayama families, collaterals of the Takeda. In the Eikyo Disturbance, which broke out that year, the Takeda helped the shogunate to destroy its rebellious governor-general of the Kanto (Kamakura kubo), Ashikaga Mochiuji (1398-1439), and reestablished themselves in Kai. Their hold on the province was, however, by no means secure: from 1492 to 1517, for instance, they were constantly threatened by family conflicts, vassals' revolts, and the incursions of their neighbors Imagawa Ujichika (1473?-1526) of Sumpu and Hôjô Soun of Odawara.
The family's position was finally consolidated by Takeda Nobutora (1498-1574), who succeeded to its headship in 1507 and over the next two decades managed to fend off external enemies while subduing the kokujin; Nobutora established the Takeda as a sengoku daimyo house. The house's fortunes reached their apogee under Takeda Shingen, who displaced his father Nobutora in 1541; but the Takeda house of Kai fell in 1582, when the hegemon Oda Nobunaga destroyed Shingen's son Takeda Katsuyori. The Takeda of Kai are the best known, but other branches of the family are as noteworthy. At least 10 Takeda were shugo of Aki Province under the Muromachi shogunate from 1336 to 1520. when they were supplanted by the Ouchi family. An offshoot of this lineage were military governors of Wakasa Province (now part of Fukui Prefecture) from 1440; there the Takeda supplanted the Isshiki fiimily.
The Takeda of Wakasa were known for their cultural pursuits: Kuninobu (1442-90) and his son Motonobu (1472?-1521), in particular, were noted amateurs of poetry. Successive heads of this house were devoted to compiling the rules of chivalrous bearing, especially of mounted archery (yabusame), developing a "Takeda school" of military etiquette (kyuba kojitsu). By the middle of the 16th century, this branch of the Takeda was in decline, unable to control Wakasa's local barons; by 1570 Wakasa was nothing more than an arena of contention for the outsiders Oda Nobunaga and Asakura Yoshikage. The province fell under Nobunaga's sway.
In 1582, when Nobunaga was killed in the honnoji incident Takeda Motoaki adhered to the assassin, Akkechi Mitsuhide, but was captured and committed suicide, as had his relative Takeda Katsuyori of Kai. Thus the two major branches of the Takeda family were destroyed within four months and one week of each other. The following text explain the rise of Takeda Shingen, maybe the most powerfull daimyo of the Country at War age...
Pendant la plus grande partie du siècle qui suivit la guerre d'Onin, de 1467 à 1477, tout le Japon fut secoué par des luttes intestines continues menées par des Seigneurs dont le but ultime était le pouvoir autonome. Ceci mena le pays à un tel chaos que des conflits commencèrent à tous les niveaux de la société ; les paysans se rebellèrent contre leurs seigneurs, les soldats contre les généraux et ces mêmes seigneurs entre eux.
Alors que l'organisation gouvernementale s'effritait, l'idée du gouvernement autonome se propageait de plus en plus à travers le pays Près de la capitale, Kyoto, des paysans résistèrent avec succès au paiement des taxes en s'unissant en de fortes associations nommées "IKKI" .
Les marchands de saké et de riz se réunirent pour reconstruire la capitale meurtrie par les longues années de guerre et pour résister à la dépravation militaire. Les chefs de la plus célèbre secte salvationiste "IKKI" devinrent assez puissants pour chasser le gouverneur provincial de KAGA, sur la côte de la mer du Japon en 1486 et parvinrent à garder un gouvernement territorial autonome jusqu'en 1576. De cette façon, les paysans, les marchands et d'autres groupes non militaires se rallièrent pour saisir le contrôle de leurs propres affaires pendant que les grands seigneurs perdaient leur pouvoir sur les campagnes, en essayant de le garder intact selon l'ancien système du "Shûgô".
Pourtant, les véritables vainqueurs de ce chaos politique étaient les Seigneurs de l'Est qui, profitant du conflit, développèrent leur propre organisation militaire et politique. Ces nouveaux chefs, Seigneurs des provinces en guerre (Sengoku Daimyo) ont marqué 1 histoire du Japon de leurs exploits dramatiques et des formidables batailles qu'ils se sont livrés. Depuis la fin de la guerre d'0nin, les Daimyo enrôlaient les guerriers campagnards à leur service et étendaient leur pouvoirs sur l'agriculture et le commerce.
Parmi les héros de cette dramatique période, ce fut TAKEDA SHINGEN, Shûgô de la province de Kai (l'actuelle Yamanashi-Ken) qui prouva être le Seigneur des seigneurs de guerre.
For the most part of a century after the Onin War of 1467 to 1477, the whole of Japan was disturbed by continual military struggles waged by samurai competing for autonomous territorial control. The contention led (0 such chaos that conflict arose at every level of society; peasants rose against landlords, soldiers against generals, and warlords challenged their neighbors. Daimyo who derived authority from the Ashikaga Bakufu, the nominal government, led armies in the environs of Kyoto, vying to control the Bakufu. After the death in 1490 of the Shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, famous for patronizing the Nô and leading an aesthetic movement from his Silver Pavilion, succeeding shoguns fell under the power of these warlords.
As government organization broke down, a measure of self-government became more evident throughout the country. Near the capital at Kyoto, peasants successfully resisted taxation by unifying in strong village organizations (Ikkyo).
Sake and rice merchants banded together to rebuild the blighted capital and resist military depredation. Leaders of the most famous of the Salvationist Buddhist sects, the Ikko Church, were powerful enough to overthrow the provincial constable of Kaga, on the Japan Sea coast, around 1486, and maintained an autonomous territorial government until 1576. Thus peasants, merchants, and other non-military groups rallied to grasp control over their own affairs as the great daimyo loosened their grasp on the countryside in an attempt to hold their own in the old order.
However, the real victors to emerge from the political chaos were the eastern warlords who took advantage of the conflict in the west to develop their own military and civilian political organizations at home. The new leaders were the Warlords of the Age of Strife (sengoku daimyo), who marked history with dramatic exploits and daring military encounters. They tough i to control new territories, and they forged a new social order in the lands they conquered. From the end of the Onin War, the warlords pressed the countryside samurai into service, and stretched their control over agriculture and commerce.
Among the dozen or so heroes in this dramatic period, it was Takeda Shingen of Kai Province who proved himself to be the warlord's warlord. En cours de réalisation
Alternate Name Takedashi-yakata
Founder Takeda Nobutora Year 1519
Type Flatland Artifacts stone walls, moat
Location Kofu City, Yamanashi Pref. Map Google Map Access 15 minutes bus ride from Kofu Station (Chuo Line) Website Takeda Shrine
Visited November 15, 2003 Notes Currently, the grounds of this former estate are mostly occupied by the Takeda Shrine. If you are in Kofu and visit the site of Kofu Castle, you might as well visit the Takeda Shrine and these ruins as well.
Founded in 1519, this was the home and center of power for three generations of the Takeda (Nobutora, Shingen, and Katsuyori). The Takeda reached their pinnacle under Shingen who actually participated in a revolution that overthrew his father and sent him into exile when he found out that Nobutora was going to make Shingen's brother Nobushige his heir. Shingen is made famous in an old poem that claims "men are your castle, men are your castle walls, men are your moats." This relates the emphasis that Shingen put in his people and during his rein he didn't build any castles beyond the fortification at Tsutsujigasaki. The picture above is taken from the corner of Nishi Kuruwa (west bailey) looking across the moat of the main compound. You'll notice this isn't called a castle here. It's not called a castle in Japanese either. It's really just a huge heavily fortified mansion or estate. For the time period in which it was originally built it would have surely been an impressive structure.